Personal Motivation and Purpose Paper

Abstract For the purpose of management and employee development, the use of coaching has been Multiple Faces of Coaching: Manager-as-coach, Executive Coaching, and Formal Mentoring increasing over the last decade. This article investigates the theoretical background of manager-ascoach, executive coaching, and formal mentoring. Based on the extant literature, it also examines the definitions, purposes, practices and research of those three interpersonal relationships. Then, Baek-Kyoo (Brian) Joo Jerilynn S. Sushko Gary N. McLean the similarities and differences among these issues are compared. Finally, implications and recommendations for future research are discussed. Overall, whereas manager-as-coach and executive coaching are different practices in terms of their purpose and process, executive coaching Baek-Kyoo (Brian) Joo ([email protected]) is an assistant professor of human resources management at Winona State University, Minnesota. He received his Ph.D. in human resource development at the University of Minnesota, and a M.A. in human resources and industrial relations from the Carlson School of Management at the University of Minnesota. His current research interests include organizational learning /creativity, leadership/employee development, and international HR/OD. He has nearly 14 years of experience in HR/OD with an oil company and an international management consulting firm. and formal mentoring are more similar. It is hoped that the conceptual distinction among these interchangeably used practices should enhance the understanding and appropriate application of such developmental practices. Practices for employee and managerial development (e.g., coaching, mentoring, and 360-degree feedback) have been increasing for the last decade Contact Information (Joo, 2005; Noe, 2001). Traditionally, development Baek-Kyoo (Brian) Joo College of Business Winona State University Somsen Hall 302 Winona, MN 55987-5838 (507) 457-5191 [email protected] has focused on management level employees, while line employees received training designed to improve a specific set of skills needed for their current job. However, with the greater use of work teams and employees’ increased involvement in all aspects of business, development is becoming more important for all employees. Whereas training is focused on helping improve employees’ performance in their current jobs, development helps prepare them for other positions in the organization and increases their abili- Volume 30 ? Number 1 ? Spring 2012 19 Jerilynn S. Sushko ([email protected]) holds a MBA and a M.A. in education from the University of St. Thomas, St. Paul, MN. She is president of a corporate training and management consulting firm in Minneapolis, Minnesota. She has over 20 years of business consulting and training experience in HRM, HRD, and OD. Her research interests include leadership/employee development, training methodologies, organization development and change, and performance management. ty to move into jobs that may not yet exist (Noe, 2001). Employee development has become a necessary component of an organization’s efforts to improve quality, to retain key employees, to meet the challenges of global competition and social change, and to incorporate technological advances and changes in work design (Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart, & Wright, 2007). Personal Motivation and Purpose Paper
 
Approaches for employ- Contact Information Jerilynn S. Sushko University of Minnesota 601 Carlson Parkway, Suite 1050 Minnetonka, MN 55305 (952) 475-6300 [email protected] ee development include formal education, assessment, job experience, and interpersonal relationships (Noe, 2001). McCauley and Douglas (2004) categorized formal developmental relationships into five types: one-on-one mentoring, peer mentoring, formal coaching, mentoring in groups, and action learning teams (Gilson, 2005). Among others, interpersonal relationship practices, such as Gary N. McLean ([email protected]) is senior professor and executive director of international HRD in the department of Educational Administration and Human Resources at Texas A&M University. He has a primary focus in international HRD and OD. He is past editor of several refereed journals and served as president of the Academy of Human Resource Development and the International Management Development Association. He is an OD practitioner with McLean Global Consulting, Inc. coaching, mentoring, and counseling have been increasing over the last decade. While some coaching services are provided by external consultants or coaches, many large organizations also provide coaching practices by internal HRD professionals, supervisors and managers, by internal mentors and coaches as well as by external HRD and management development consultants (Hamline, Ellinger, & Beattie, 2008). Contact Information Describing four variant of coaching (i.e., coaching, Gary N. McLean Texas A&M University College Station, TX 77843 [email protected] executive coaching, business coaching, and life coaching), Hamline et al. (2008) concluded that each variant of coaching embraced features with other variants. In this study, we focus on contrasting three practices: manager-as-coach (also known as managerial coaching), executive coaching, and formal mentoring. 20 Organization Development Journal Problem Statement reviewing books and articles, we found many labels for coaching and related practices, includ- According to the International Coach Federation ing manager-as-coach, managerial coaching, exec- (ICF), its global membership has soared from utive coaching, business coaching, life coaching, about 1,500 in 1999 to almost 7,000 by the end of career counseling, (formal) mentoring, and so on. 2003 (Joo, 2005). According to their website, the Diversity in terminology can be a source of prac- membership is now well over 11,000 in 82 coun- tical and conceptual confusion that makes it diffi- tries. Research into the efficacy of coaching has cult for practitioners to identify research relevant lagged behind and it has only started to develop to their particular concerns. As the distinction seriously over the last five years (Jarvis, Lane, & among these practices is not clear, sometimes Fillery-Travis, 2006). The membership of the they are used interchangeably in practice. Personal Motivation and Purpose Paper
 
In spite European Mentoring and Coaching Council of the popularity of coaching, therefore, it may (EMCC), the leading coaching associations in EU, not be practiced as effectively as it might be is approximately 2,700 and rising rapidly (Hamlin because of the lack of understanding of its pur- et al., 2008). As identified by Grant (2003), the lit- pose and benefits among managers and organiza- erature is at a point of expansion in response to tions (Evered & Selman, 1989; Orth, Wilkinson, & practice development. Benfari, 1987). Coaching has rapidly become a significant part of Research Purpose and Questions many organizations’ learning and development strategy. Lack of transfer in learning and lack of The purpose of this study is to explore the theo- sustained behavioral change pointed toward the retical background of, and to compare manager- need for more individualized, more engaged, as-coach, executive coaching, and formal mentor- more context-specific learning (Bacon & Spear, ing among others. The significance of this article 2003). Learning, development, behavioral change, lies in the distinction of the three developmental performance, leadership, career success, and interpersonal relationships, based on the extant organizational commitment are all concepts relat- literature on coaching and mentoring. The con- ed to coaching. While practice on coaching is ceptual distinction among similar practices that is increasing, more attention needs to be paid to interchangeably used would enhance the under- coaching by researchers. In their recent article, standing and appropriate application of such Hamline et al. (2008) urge that HRD researchers developmental practices. should pay more attention on coaching, as there is an increasing entry into coaching of individuals Thus, the research questions are three-fold: (1) from various professional fields, including psy- what are the theoretical backgrounds of the emer- chology, psychiatry, adult education, manage- gence of multiple faces of coaching? (2) what is ment, and organizational development. the rationale for the use (i.e., definitions and purposes) of manager-as-coach, executive coaching, One of the key issues for research and practice of and formal mentoring? and (3) what are the simi- these interpersonal relationships is the appropri- larities and differences among these practices? ateness of the use of the term coaching. In Volume 30 ? Number 1 ? Spring 2012 21 Methods Background This article focuses on published research on In a knowledge-based economy, attraction, moti- interpersonal relationship in the workplace. vation, and retention of talented employees have Articles for this review were identified through been critical concerns in many organizations. searches of Business Source Premier, Science Direct, Fierce global competition and rapid technological and Interscience databases (through December, advancement have made jobs more complex and 2010), using key words, coaching, executive coach- challenging (Joo, 2007). Personal Motivation and Purpose Paper
 
In addition, as teams have ing, managerial coaching, manager-as-coach, and for- become a basic form of organizational structure, mal mentoring. We reviewed the reference list of the role of leader has transformed from a tradi- each article to identify additional citations that tional director to a supportive coach. In order to were not revealed by other search means. The support its employees, organizations should not majority of the research on manager-as-coach and only introduce new development practices, but executive coaching in the workplace has been also build organizational learning culture and published within the last 10 years. Research on positive social relationships between managers formal mentoring has longer history. Since the and employees. Thus, coaching and mentoring focus of this paper is on coaching, however, the have emerged as important approaches for literature review on formal mentoring relied on employee development. the major papers such as Wanberg, Welsh, and Hezlett (2003). It should be noted that most arti- Use of Teams in Organizations cles are from practice journals such as Harvard Business Review and Consulting Psychology Journal: As the organizational structure has been trans- Practice & Research. Books and book chapters on formed into teams, several problems typically the general topic of coaching in the workplace have been encountered in moving toward the use and on executive coaching have been reviewed as of self-managed teams (Kulisch & Banner, 1993). well (Bacon & Spear, 2003; Fitzgerald & Berger, The first problem is what to do with first-line 2002; Kilburg, 2000). supervisors who are no longer needed as supervisors. One option is to have them assume new This paper is divided into six parts: the back- responsibilities as coordinators or coaches ground of the emergence of coaching; the practice (Kulisch & Banner, 1993). Another problem is that and research of manager-as-coach; the practice managers who are one level above the teams will and research of executive coaching; the practice likely oversee the activities of several teams, and and research of formal mentoring; a comparison their roles will change to emphasizing planning, of the three developmental interpersonal relation- expediting, and coordinating (Kulisch & Banner, ships; discussion including implications, recom- 1993). These managers need considerable training mendations for future research, and conclusions. to acquire skills in group leadership and the ability to delegate (McLean, 2006). Therefore, more supportive leadership has become the preferred style of leadership and coaching is being emphasized in a number of organizations. 22 Organization Development Journal Complex and Challenging Jobs knowledge, including technological expertise and invisible assets, are the source of competitive As Drucker (1988) concluded, organizations are advantage. In order to effectively attract, moti- shifting to an information-based organization, or vate, and retain talented people, therefore, many self-governing units of knowledge specialists. firms try to become an employer of choice, which Knowledge work is characterized by “unpre- refers to a firm that is always the first choice of dictable, multidisciplinary, and non-repetitive world-class candidates due to its status and repu- tasks with evolving, long term goals which, due tation in terms of corporate culture and HR prac- to their inherent ambiguity and complexity, tices (Sutherland, Torricelli, & Karg, 2002).Personal Motivation and Purpose Paper
Thus, require collaborative effort in order to take advan- to be employers of choice, organizations try to tage of multiple viewpoints” (Janz, Colquitt, & outperform their competition in attracting, devel- Noe, 1997, pp. 882-883). When jobs are complex oping, and retaining people with business- and demanding (i.e., high on challenge, autono- required talent. They achieve this reputation my, and complexity), individuals are more likely through innovative and compelling HR practices to focus all of their attention and efforts on their that benefit both employees and their organiza- jobs, making them more persistent and more like- tions alike (Joo & McLean, 2006). According to ly to consider alternatives that should result in best employer studies (e.g., Fortune magazine’s creative outcomes (Oldham & Cummings, 1996; annual list of “100 Best Companies to Work for in Shalley & Gilson, 2004). However, one of the char- America”), the best companies on the list provid- acteristics of complex and challenging jobs is that ed employees with more learning and develop- it is difficult to monitor them (Joo, 2007). In addi- ment opportunities, which eventually lead to tal- tion, employees who feel micromanaged easily ent attraction and retention (Joo & McLean, 2006). lose interest in their jobs (Csikszentmihalyi, 2003). Thus, the best employers invest more time and For many reasons, the role of leader has changed money in developing their leaders and high- from traditional hierarchical director to being a potential employees such as coaching and men- supportive and non-controlling leader. As the pre- toring (Bennett & Bell, 2003). ferred style of leadership has changed from directive to supportive, therefore, manager-as-coach In summary, the use of team organization, com- has become a new role of every supervisor and plex and challenging jobs, and talent management manager, especially in knowledge-intensive strategy provide the rationale for coaching. The industries. Finally, employees’ commitment and definitions, purposes, practices and research of retention are directly related to how they are three interpersonal relationships are described in treated by their managers. detail in the following sections. Manager-as-Coach Talent Management According to the resource-based view of the firm, The increasing popularity of manager-as-coach the firm is a bundle of resources—including tangi- has been evidenced by numerous books on the ble and intangible assets (Evans, Pucik, & topic (Ellinger, Ellinger, & Keller, 2003) and a Barsoux, 2002). Competencies, capabilities, and number of programs teaching the coaching con- Volume 30 ? Number 1 ? Spring 2012 23 cept and techniques offered by many consulting learning. Manager-as-coach occurs as part of the firms (McLean, Yang, Kuo, Tolbert, & Larkin, everyday relationship between employee and 2005). Manager-as-coach has been identified as a supervisor/manager and serves as a strong reten- way of motivating, developing, and retaining tion tool. Regular, constructive, and significant employees in organizations (Evered & Selman, feedback from managers and supervisors can add 1989; Orth et al., 1987). to overall performance success (King & Eaton, 1999). Personal Motivation and Purpose Paper
 
Without specific feedback, effective per- Definition of Manager-as-Coach formance is not reinforced, ineffective performance is not identified, and employees do not Manager-as-coach is defined as a managerial know if their performance is meeting the expecta- practice that helps employees learn and improve tions of their managers, supervisors, or the com- problem work performance by providing guid- pany’s customers. ance, encouragement and support (Ellinger, Ellinger, Hamlin, & Beattie, 2010). More specifical- Performance improvement is almost always iden- ly, it is an ongoing process for improving prob- tified as the primary potential outcome of coach- lematic work performance (Fournies, 1987), help- ing (Evered & Selman, 1989; Fournies, 1987; ing employees recognize opportunities to Hargrove, 2000; Orth et al., 1987). It also has been improve their performance and capabilities (Orth linked to increased job satisfaction, personal capa- et al., 1987; Popper & Lipshitz, 1992), empowering bility, motivation, and organizational commit- employees to exceed prior levels of performance ment, and to decreased turnover (Evered & (Burdett, 1998; Evered & Selman, 1989; Hargrove Selman, 1989; Orth et al., 1987; Yarnall, 1996). 1995), and giving guidance, encouragement and However, there have been few studies that have support to the learner (Redshaw, 2000). Manager- described how manager-as-coach brings about as-coach can also be defined as a leadership these outcomes. approach based on the condition of constructive feedback that is designed to bring the most out of Practice of Manager-as-Coach people by showing that they are respected and valued (Goodstone & Diamante, 1998; Hargrove, A broader idea of manager-as-coach program 1995; Hudson, 1999). The majority of manager-as- grew out of the success of external coaching and coach definitions revolve around the idea of mentoring practices (McCauley & Hezlett, 2001). empowering people to make their own decisions, This has led to increased attention on developing unleashing their potential, enabling learning, and managers who can coach all of their subordinates improving performance (Rogers, 2000). (Peterson & Hicks, 1996). As supervisors tend to communicate more frequently with typical subor- Purpose of Manager-as-Coach dinates than with their protégés, support for development can be reinforced more regularly The benefits of manager-as-coach have been through coaching than through mentoring addressed by many researchers. Manager-as- (McCauley & Hezlett, 2001). Moreover, manager- coach occurs in the workplace so that on-the-job as-coach suggests that development is important activities and experience become the means for for all employees, not just those who find or are 24 Organization Development Journal assigned a mentor (McCauley & Hezlett, 2001). isfaction and a tendency toward more life satisfaction. Many researchers have focused on essential elements of coaching, effective coaching skills, and Some research has examined coaching behaviors coaching behaviors. There seems to be general to identify “overt managerial practices that agreement that coaching means creating a climate demonstrate effective coaching characteristics” of communication, support, trust, acceptance, and (McLean et al., 2005). Ellinger et al. (2003) created commitment for improving performance and coaching behavior measures based on previous developing employees’ capabilities (Darraugh, research results of behavioral taxonomies 1990; Evered & Selman, 1989…